CBD – The 411 – History/Health/Methods
By: Veronica Castillo
Thousands of years ago, Cannabis/ hemp grew wild, and was known as medicine. In 1937, when the Marihuana Tax Act was passed, all things Cannabis were made illegal, this included hemp. But now, the world is seeing all the benefits of Cannabis- specifically hemp and CBD.
It’s important to note the difference between Cannabis, hemp, and CBD. Cannabis and hemp are the same plant, the difference is- THC. Cannabis is the mother plant and her children are marijuana and hemp. Marijuana is created by selectively breeding the seeds for THC. Usually, breeders breed to purify and strengthen strains, combine strain traits, or enhance specific characteristics like higher yields, specific aromas, potency, and other things.
CBD – What It Is and Its History
What is CBD
CBD (cannabidiol) is one of the most popular cannabinoids of the 100 or more cannabinoids out there. CBD stands for: cannabidiol and is known as a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. CBD doesn’t have a strong impact on cognitive brain activity and doesn’t cause the high that THC produces. Cannabis and hemp can have different effects on different people; however, generally speaking, no high.
CBD can be found in Cannabis hemp and Cannabis marijuana. If the CBD comes from hemp, generally, it has .3% THC or less. If the CBD comes from marijuana, usually, there are higher percentages of THC. The same is true for cannabinoids like CBG (cannabigerol), CBN (cannabinol), CBC (cannabichromene), etc. Even THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) isn’t cause for a mental high concern.
The first documented use of Cannabis-derived medicine dates back to 2737 BC when Chinese Emperor Sheng Nung used a cannabis-infused tea to aid with a variety of ailments including memory, malaria, rheumatism, and gout. In 1942, American chemist, Roger Adams, made history when he isolated the first cannabinoid – CBD. His research is also responsible for the discovery of THC.
In 1980, Dr. Mechoulam led a study on the potential application of CBD for the treatment of epilepsy as a hypnotic. The study was significant and discovered that daily dosages of 300 mg per day of CBD, cured half of the subjects of seizures and the others exhibited a decrease in the frequency of their seizures. Sadly, the study wasn’t publicized due to drug laws.
As for the history of medicinal Cannabis/ hemp/ CBD in America, related to legalization:
- California became the first state to legalize Cannabis in 1996.
- In 1998, Oregon, Alaska, and Washington followed suit. Though, Oregon decriminalized it in the 70’s.
- Hawaii, Nevada, and Colorado legalized in 2000.
Regarding recreational Cannabis legalization in America:
- In 2018, the Farm Bill legalized low-THC Cannabis- hemp, descheduling CBD from the Controlled Substances Act- list of scheduled drugs- making CBD from hemp federally legal
- Colorado and Washington become the first states to legalize Cannabis for recreational use in 2012.
- 2016 was an active year for Cannabis support. California, Nevada, Maine, and Massachusetts legalized recreational cannabis. Arkansas, Florida, and North Dakota legalized medical Cannabis.
As of May 2020, only 8 states in America have laws that ban Cannabis.
Who CBD is Good for and Common Uses
CBD is good for humans and pets- it is good for pain, stress, and overall biology for most.
- Pain relief – studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain.
- Anxiety – researchers found that a 300-mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety.
- Depression – studies have shown that CBD can reduce depression in both human and animal studies.
- Relieving cancer symptoms – studies have shown that CBD inhibited the spread of aggressive breast cancer cells.
- Reducing Acne – recent studies show that CBD oil may help treat acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties and ability to reduce sebum production.
- Treating neurological disorders – several studies have shown promising results regarding CBD treatment for conditions like epilepsy and multiple sclerosis.
- High blood pressure – researchers have suggested that the stress- and anxiety-reducing properties of CBD are responsible for its ability to help lower blood pressure.
- Substance abuse treatment – CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction.
CBD Consumption Forms/ Types
The CBD industry offers a wide range of CBD products:
- CBD Flower: looks like marijuana flower but has very little THC. Legal CBD flower from hemp will have .3% or less THC.
- CBD RSO: RSO stands for: Rick Simpson Oil- a concentrated form of cannabis oil (different from oil tinctures) popular for cancer. This too- can be derived from hemp and/or marijuana.
- CBD Oil Tincture: Cannabis oil extracted from the CBD flower- different than RSO though. Similar to flower, federally legal CBD oil will contain .3% or less THC.
- CBD Edible: Cannabis-infused into food and/or beverage. In this case, CBD is an “ingredient” of the recipe.
- CBD Concentrate: a very strong form of consumption where the cannabinoids and terpenes are extracted from the plant.
- CBD Topical: creams, salves, and balms that have been infused with CBD.
CBD for Pets
From Cornell University, discussed by ProjectCBD.org:
“Studies evaluating the efficacy of cannabis in treating arthritis in dogs have been completed as well. A recent study from Cornell University showed reduction in pain scores in dogs with arthritis — with no negative side effects — when treated with CBD vs. placebo.4. In a more practical sense, many veterinarians and pet owners have seen the positive effects of medical cannabis for the treatment of arthritis and other forms of pain in animals. The research merely confirms what many of us have seen first-hand.”
“A survey published in the Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association found that, out of 632 people, 72 percent reported using or having used a hemp product for their dog (and 104 tried it with their cat) and 64 percent felt that it helped their pets.”
From Science Daily via the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association:
“McGrath, a neurologist at Colorado State University’s James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital, led a small study with 16 pet dogs to assess the short-term effect of CBD on seizure frequency. Based on her research, McGrath found that 89 percent of dogs who received CBD in the clinical trial had a reduction in the frequency of seizures. Nine dogs were treated with CBD, while seven in a control group were treated with a placebo.”It is important to understand hemp CBD at least on a basic level, prior to shopping for CBD products. Information is key-as much of it as possible, because it is the best way to ensure the best choices are made.